The German side dominated possession in the early stages and Marvin Stefaniak forced a fine save from Derby goalkeeper Jonathan Mitchell with 10 minutes gone.
Charles Vernam had the hosts' best chance in the first half after a well-worked move.
Both sides went close to going ahead after the interval but it was the Rams who took the lead when Wolfsburg defender Dominik Franke turned Luke Thomas's left-wing cross into his own net.
Derby are now level with Group C leaders Wolfsburg on three points.
See: Derby report
Derby: 6 Nov v Nottingham Forest (H), PL Cup
Wolfsburg: 29 Nov v Dinamo Zagreb II (A), PL International Cup