The Chelsea head coach won the award by receiving the most combined votes from a panel of experts and fans via a public vote.
He beat fellow contenders Paul Clement, of Swansea City, Burnley manager Sean Dyche, AFC Bournemouth's Eddie Howe, Tottenham Hotspur manager Mauricio Pochettino and Tony Pulis, of West Bromwich Albion.
Conte's switch to a 3-4-3 formation in September triggered a 13-match winning run that propelled Chelsea to finish seven points clear of second-placed Spurs.
This streak earned him three Barclays Manager of the Month awards as the Blues set a Premier League record for most wins within a single season (30).
And here's what the boss had to say after his side beat Sunderland 5-1 yesterday... https://t.co/t2IiaRhck7— Chelsea FC (@ChelseaFC) May 22, 2017
He is the second Italian winner of the award, following Claudio Ranieri's triumph as Leicester City manager in 2015/16, and becomes the third man in PL history to be named Barclays Manager of the Season in his debut PL campaign after Jose Mourinho, also of Chelsea in 2004/05, and George Burley, who won in 2000/01 after finishing fifth with Ipswich Town in their first season after promotion.