Rose, who has made 156 Premier League appearances for Spurs since April 2010 and has 29 England caps, will wear the No 28 shirt at St James’ Park.
"Newcastle is one of the biggest clubs in England," Rose told the club's official website.
"I spoke to the manager last night and he told me there were 50,000 fans here at the weekend against Oxford.
"You can't go wrong with that kind of passion and support from the fans, and it’s something I’m looking forward to."
Head coach Steve Bruce added: "He has proven quality, as he’s shown over several years for club and country, and is a class act."
Rose could make his debut when Newcastle host Norwich City on Saturday.